The first alphabetic writing derives from tokens which represented a specific thing, such as a cow, and then the word for cow, and then that initial sound in the word.
Such as aleph, our letter "A".
"These letters are believed to have derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph depicting an ox's head to describe the initial sound of the West Semitic word for ox, preserved in Biblical Hebrew as Eleph 'ox'."
Yes. The fact that natural languages tend to obey Zipf's Law suggests that natural languages evolve through a struggle between the speaker to efficiently speak and the listener to efficiently hear and understand.
These forms are already united in that they are all comprehensible by humans.
But can human cognition ever be modeled and encompassed by any kind of universal Turing machine?
Penrose argues, "No," in The Emperor's New Mind and Shadows of the Mind.
> Now, I can imagine a situation where the whole spectrum is being utilized, and you can pick any point on the spectrum independently on whether you're talking to a human or a machine.Or, if we believe Penrose as you referenced, not quite any point of the spectrum, only most of the points. =)
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