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The Social Cost of , and in the

Results suggest that each kilometer driven by incurs an of €0.11, while and represent of €0.18 and €0.37 per kilometer.

Extrapolated to the total number of passenger kilometers driven, cycled or walked in the European Union, the cost of automobility is about €500 billion per year.

doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.201

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