@Vierkantor (p2) On Windows, there are minimized windows, maximized windows, windowed mode windows, and that's it. If you close a window, it closes the entire program of that window. A program and its window are treated as one in the same. If you close one, it closes the other, which is good because on Windows it's a good idea to close programs because your computer will run slowly.
@Vierkantor (p3) On macOS/OS X, there are fullscreened windows, zoomed windows, unfullscreened windows, minimized windows, and hidden windows. If you press close on a window, it closes the window but not the entire program. You can close a window's program by "focusing" on the window, navigating the menu bar, and "quitting" the program.
@Vierkantor (p4) Why does macOS not close the program when you close its window? Good question! Apparently, it was more useful in pre-OS X versions of the Mac operating system, but I don't know how. macOS has a "menu bar" that lets you access specific things within programs, even though it's outside of that program's window on the top of the screen. Most things in Windows are accessed within the window of the program you're in.
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